Constitutive cell surface association between CD4 and CCR5.
Xiao X., Wu L., Stantchev TS., Feng YR., Ugolini S., Chen H., Shen Z., Riley JL., Broder CC., Sattentau QJ., Dimitrov DS.
HIV-1 entry into cells involves formation of a complex between gp120 of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), a receptor (CD4), and a coreceptor. For most strains of HIV, this coreceptor is CCR5. Here, we provide evidence that CD4 is specifically associated with CCR5 in the absence of gp120 or any other receptor-specific ligand. The amount of CD4 coimmunoprecipitated with CCR5 was significantly higher than that with the other major HIV coreceptor, CXCR4, and in contrast to CXCR4 the CD4-CCR5 coimmunoprecipitation was not significantly increased by gp120. The CD4-CCR5 interaction probably takes place via the second extracellular loop of CCR5 and the first two domains of CD4. It can be inhibited by CCR5- and CD4-specific antibodies that interfere with HIV-1 infection, indicating a possible role in virus entry. These findings suggest a possible pathway of HIV-1 evolution and development of immunopathogenicity, a potential new target for antiretroviral drugs and a tool for development of vaccines based on Env-CD4-CCR5 complexes. The constitutive association of a seven-transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled receptor with another receptor also indicates new possibilities for cross-talk between cell surface receptors.