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We explored the timescale, spatial spread, and risk group population structure of HIV-1 subtype B', the cause of explosive blood-borne HIV-1 epidemics among injecting drug users (IDUs) and former plasma donors (FPDs) in Asia. Sequences from FPDs in China formed a distinct monophyletic cluster within subtype B'. Further analysis revealed that subtype B' was founded by a single lineage of pandemic subtype B around 1985. Subsequently, the FPD cluster appears to have derived from a single subtype B' lineage around 1991, corroborating the hypothesis that FPD outbreaks stemmed from the preceding epidemic among IDUs in Southeast Asia, most likely from the Golden-Triangle region.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





223 - 227


Asia, Blood Donors, Cluster Analysis, Genotype, Geography, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Molecular Epidemiology, RNA, Viral, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Risk Factors, Risk-Taking, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Sequence Homology, Substance Abuse, Intravenous, gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus