Therapeutic immunization for the control of HIV-1: where are we now?
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV-1 infection from an invariably fatal disease into a chronic infection requiring lifelong treatment. However, the challenges we still face are the urgent need to provide affordable sustainable therapy to the millions of infected individuals who live in resource-poor countries, and the limitations posed by serious drug toxicity and viral resistance associated with long-term therapy. Augmentation of HIV-specific immunity by therapeutic vaccination is a possible alternative to continuous HAART. In this review, progress in the development of therapeutic immunization strategies is discussed.