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BACKGROUND: In the USA, most HIV-1 infected children are on antiretroviral drug regimens, with many individuals surviving through adolescence and into adulthood. The course of HIV-1 infection in these children is variable, and understudied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined whether qualitative differences in immune cell subsets could explain a slower disease course in long term survivors with no evidence of immune suppression (LTS-NS; CD4%≥25%) compared to those with severe immune suppression (LTS-SS; CD4%≤15%). Subjects in the LTS-NS group had significantly higher frequencies of naïve (CCR7+CD45RA+) and central memory (CCR7+CD45RA-) CD4+ T cells compared to LTS-SS subjects (p = 0.0005 and <0.0001, respectively). Subjects in the rapid progressing group had significantly higher levels of CD4+ T(EMRA) (CCR7-CD45RA+) cells compared to slow progressing subjects (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid disease progression in vertical infection is associated with significantly higher levels of CD4+ T(EMRA) (CCR7-CD45RA+) cells.

Original publication

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0029154

Type

Journal article

Journal

PLoS One

Publication Date

2012

Volume

7

Keywords

Adolescent, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cell Differentiation, Child, Disease Progression, Flow Cytometry, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical, Male