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Costimulatory molecules are crucial for the induction of immune responses after immunization with purified proteins or peptides. However, some viruses and other pathogens are able to induce protective immunity in the absence of such molecules. This review argues that patterns recognized by both the specific and the innate immune system, together with a high and sustained Ag-load, are responsible for these surprisingly efficient immune responses triggered by pathogens.

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Immunol

Publication Date

01/12/1998

Volume

161

Pages

5791 - 5794

Keywords

Animals, Antibodies, Viral, B-Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, T-Lymphocytes, Viruses