Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Costimulatory molecules are crucial for the induction of immune responses after immunization with purified proteins or peptides. However, some viruses and other pathogens are able to induce protective immunity in the absence of such molecules. This review argues that patterns recognized by both the specific and the innate immune system, together with a high and sustained Ag-load, are responsible for these surprisingly efficient immune responses triggered by pathogens.


Journal article


J Immunol

Publication Date





5791 - 5794


Animals, Antibodies, Viral, B-Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, T-Lymphocytes, Viruses