Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, causes multiple allergic and nonallergic airway diseases. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a nonallergic, life-threatening disease of immunocompromised patients. In a murine model of IPA, interleukin (IL)-4-deficient (IL-4-/-) BALB/c mice were used to examine the role of IL-4 in lung pathology and immune responses. IL-4-/- mice were more resistant than wild-type mice to infection caused by multiple intranasal injections of viable A. fumigatus conidia. Resistance was associated with decreased lung inflammatory pathology, impaired T helper (Th)-2 responses (including lung eosinophilia), and an IL-12-dependent Th1 response. In contrast, development of host-detrimental antifungal Th2 cells occurred in IL-12-/- and interferon-gamma-/- mice and in IL-4-/- mice when subjected to IL-12 neutralization. These results demonstrate that IL-4 renders mice susceptible to infection with A. fumigatus by inhibition of protective Th1 responses. IL-4 appears to have a distinct role in the pathogenesis of allergic and nonallergic lung diseases caused by the fungus.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





1957 - 1968


Animals, Aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Immune Tolerance, Interleukin-4, Lung, Lung Diseases, Fungal, Lymphocyte Activation, Lymphocytes, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred DBA, Mice, Knockout, Th1 Cells, Th2 Cells