Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Tobacco dependence is an addiction characterised by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior and intensive craving in the absence of tobacco. Nicotine is the major addictive component of tobacco and acts on the reward system in the brain. Together with strong conditional reinforcements, unaided smoking cessation attempts are notoriously unsuccessful and even the most recently introduced pharmacotherapy, varenicline, only achieves a 23% continuous abstinence rate after 1 year. Vaccination against nicotine represents a promising novel concept for treating nicotine addiction. Antibodies against nicotine inhibit the passage of nicotine to brain and thus inhibit its addiction-reinforcing activities. There are three nicotine vaccines that are in clinical development. The first proof-of-concept study in smoking cessation with the vaccine NicQb (Cytos Biotechnology), a nicotine vaccine based on virus-like particles, demonstrated that continuous abstinence rates can be significantly increased by vaccination; however, as expected from the mode of action, a sufficient antibody level had to be achieved. Antibody level dependence of abstinence was also observed with the nicotine vaccine NicVAX (Nabi Biopharmaceuticals). Vaccination against nicotine has the potential of becoming an important therapy against tobacco dependence.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Opin Investig Drugs

Publication Date





1775 - 1783


Animals, Carrier Proteins, Humans, Nicotine, Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use Disorder, Vaccination, Vaccines