Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Immunotherapy of type-I-allergies is regarded as the most efficient treatment option besides allergen avoidance. Different forms of allergen preparations are used as well as different routes of application. Virus-like particles represent a potent vaccine platform with proven immunogenicity and clinical efficacy. The addition of toll-like receptor ligands and/or depot-forming adjuvants further enhances immune cell activation. This article will focus on the function of virus-like particles loaded with DNA rich in CpG-motifs and discuss clinical experience in treatment of allergic rhinitis. Evidence will be presented that clinically effective treatment can be obtained even in the absence of allergens. Results encourage further investigation of virus-like particles and CpG-motifs in immunotherapy, either as a stand alone product, or as adjuvants for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Rev Clin Immunol

Publication Date





1059 - 1067


CpG, allergen, asthma, immunotherapy, rhinitis, toll-like receptor, virus-like particle, Adjuvants, Immunologic, Allergens, CpG Islands, Drug Delivery Systems, Humans, Immunotherapy, Nucleotide Motifs, Rhinitis, Allergic, Toll-Like Receptors, Virion