Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Immunotherapy for type I allergies is well established and is regarded to be the most efficient treatment option besides allergen avoidance. As of today, different forms of allergen preparations are used in this regard, as well as different routes of application. Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a potent vaccine platform with proven immunogenicity and clinical efficacy. The addition of toll-like receptor ligands and/or depot-forming adjuvants further enhances activation of innate as well as adaptive immune responses. CpG motifs represent intensively investigated and potent direct stimulators of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, while T cell responses are enhanced indirectly through increased antigen presentation and cytokine release. This article will focus on the function of VLPs loaded with DNA rich in nonmethylated CG motifs (CpGs) and the clinical experience gained in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, demonstrating clinical efficacy also if administered without allergens. Several published studies have demonstrated a beneficial impact on allergic symptoms by treatment with CpG-loaded VLPs. Subcutaneous injection of VLPs loaded with CpGs was tested with or without the adjuvant alum in the presence or absence of an allergen. The results encourage further investigation of VLPs and CpG motifs in immunotherapy, either as a stand-alone product or as adjuvants for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Treat Options Allergy

Publication Date





72 - 82


Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, CpG motifs, Immunotherapy, Vaccine, Virus-like particles