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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Despite effective control of many of the deadly infectious diseases by vaccination, there remain a substantial number of important pathogens for which there exists no effective preventive tool based on immunization. Furthermore, chronic, often noncommunicable diseases have become the largest cause of death and disability. Many vaccines developed against these diseases remain, similar to classical vaccines, based on the induction of antibody responses. In this article we discuss modern vaccine design optimized for induction of specific and protective antibody responses against often complex conformational epitopes and how innate mechanisms may be harnessed to modulate antibody isotypes and subclasses as well as duration of responses.

Original publication





Book title

Encyclopedia of Immunobiology

Publication Date





275 - 278