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Virus-like particles (VLPs) and nano-particles (NPs) are promising vaccine platforms that have led to the successful development of commercially available vaccines. The 5th international virus-like particle and nano-particle vaccines conference was held in Bern, Switzerland, from the 25th to the 27th of September in 2018. Topics included novel vaccine production techniques, methods to enhance vaccine immunogenicity, and preclinical/clinical efficacy evaluation of vaccine candidates. Here, we report on a selection of updates that were presented including the production of vaccines in plants, novel adjuvants to enhance vaccine immunogenicity, novel techniques of conjugating vaccine platforms with target antigens and the use of VLP-based vaccines for cancer and inflammatory diseases.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert review of vaccines

Publication Date





1 - 3


a Department of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergology , University Hospital Bern, University of Bern , Bern , Switzerland.