Dynamic populations of dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin-positive immature dendritic cells and liver/lymph node-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin-positive endothelial cells in the outer zones of the paracortex of human lymph nodes.
Engering A., van Vliet SJ., Hebeda K., Jackson DG., Prevo R., Singh SK., Geijtenbeek TBH., van Krieken H., van Kooyk Y.
In the paracortex of lymph nodes, cellular immune responses are generated against antigens captured in peripheral tissues by dendritic cells (DCs). DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin), a C-type lectin exclusively expressed by DCs, functions as an antigen receptor as well as an adhesion receptor. A functional homologue of DC-SIGN, L-SIGN (liver/lymph node-SIGN, also called DC-SIGN-related), is expressed by liver sinus endothelial cells. In lymph nodes, both DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are expressed. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of these two SIGN molecules in detail in both normal and immunoreactive lymph nodes. DC-SIGN is expressed by mature DCs in paracortical areas and in addition by DCs with an immature phenotype in the outer zones of the paracortex. L-SIGN expression was also detected in the outer zones on sinus endothelial cells characterized by their expression of the lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1 and CLEVER-1. During both cellular and humoral immune responses changes in the amount of DC-SIGN+ immature and mature DCs and L-SIGN+ endothelial cells were observed, indicating that the influx or proliferation of these cells is dynamically regulated.