Risk Factors for Elevated Serum Lipopolysaccharide in Acute Dengue and Association with Clinical Disease Severity.
Shyamali NLA., Mahapatuna SD., Gomes L., Wijewickrama A., Ogg GS., Malavige GN.
Although serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was shown to associate with development of severe dengue, the reasons for high LPS and its subsequent involvement in disease pathogenesis are not known. We assessed serum LPS, C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin in patients with acute dengue fever (DF = 129) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF = 64) and correlated these observations with the presence of comorbid illnesses, and clinical disease severity. Serum LPS levels were significantly (p = 0.01) higher in patients with DHF, compared to those with DF. In total, 45 (70%) of those with DHF and 63 (49%) of those with DF had detectable LPS and therefore, the presence of LPS was significantly associated with DHF (p = 0.005, OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.29 to 4.64). Those with metabolic diseases, 22/29 (75.9%) and those with atopic diseases 17/22 (77.3%) were significantly more likely to have detectable LPS levels (p = 0.025, OR = 2.9, 95% CI-1.17 to 7.59 and p = 0.039, OR = 3.06, 95% CI-1.07 to 7.81 respectively). Those with detectable LPS levels were also more likely to develop shock and severe thrombocytopenia. Patients with detectable LPS were more likely to have elevated CRP levels and were more likely to develop DHF. Procalcitonin levels too were significantly (p = 0.009) higher in those with DHF compared to those with DF and were more likely to be high in those with detectable serum LPS. Since serum LPS levels were higher in patients with DHF and significantly more likely to be present in those with comorbid illnesses, the possible role of LPS in disease pathogenesis should be further investigated.