Neuroinflammation associated with ultrasound-mediated permeabilization of the blood–brain barrier
Jung O., Thomas A., Burks SR., Dustin ML., Frank JA., Ferrer M., Stride E.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) continues to represent one of the most significant challenges for successful drug-based treatments of neurological disease. Mechanical modulation of the BBB using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles (MBs) has shown considerable promise in enhancing the delivery of therapeutics to the brain, but questions remain regarding possible long-term effects of such forced disruption. This review examines the evidence for inflammation associated with ultrasound-induced BBB disruption and potential strategies for managing such inflammatory effects to improve both the efficacy and safety of therapeutic ultrasound in neurological applications.