Determination of the affinity and kinetic constants for the interaction between the human virus echovirus 11 and its cellular receptor, CD55.
Lea SM., Powell RM., McKee T., Evans DJ., Brown D., Stuart DI., van der Merwe PA.
The biochemical properties of the molecular interactions mediating viral-cell recognition are poorly characterized. In this study, we use surface plasmon resonance to study the affinity and kinetics of the interaction of echovirus 11 with its cellular receptor decay-accelerating factor (CD55). As reported for interactions between cell-cell recognition molecules, the interaction has a low affinity (KD approximately 3.0 microM) as a result of a very fast dissociation rate constant (kon approximately 10(5) M-1.s-1, koff approximately 0.3 s-1). This contrasts with the interaction of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1, CD54) with human rhinovirus 3 which has been reported to have a similar affinity but 10(2)-10(3)-fold slower kinetics (Casasnovas, J. M., and Springer, T. A. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 13216-13224). The extracellular portion of decay-accelerating factor comprises four short consensus repeat domains (domains 1-4) and a mucin-like stalk. By comparison of the binding affinity for echovirus 11 of various fragments of decay-accelerating factor, we are able to conclude that short consensus repeat domain 3 contributes approximately 80% of the binding energy.