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Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world’s leading causes of death due to a single infectious pathogen, having caused 1.4 million deaths in 2019 according to the World Health Organization and approximately 10 million new cases of disease. Since 1921, the vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has provided partial and variable protection against TB disease. The last 20 years have seen renewed efforts to develop improved, deployable and affordable vaccines to protect global populations from TB. These efforts have culminated in remarkable advances in the last 2–3 years. Key history, challenges and progress in TB vaccine clinical development are reviewed in this chapter.

Original publication





Book title

Essential Tuberculosis

Publication Date



49 - 58