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This work aims to investigate how smoking exerts effect on the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A prospective cohort study and a Mendelian randomization study are first conducted to evaluate the association between smoking behaviors, smoking-related DNA methylation and the risks of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We then perform both genome-wide methylation analysis and co-localization analysis to validate the observed associations. Compared to never smoking, current and previous smoking habits are associated with increased CD (P = 7.09 × 10-10) and UC (P 

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Commun

Publication Date