Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines: towards greater efficacy.
The complex life cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum provides many options for vaccine design. Several new types of vaccine are now being evaluated in clinical trials. Recently, two vaccine candidates that target the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria life cycle - a protein particle vaccine with a powerful adjuvant and a prime-boost viral-vector vaccine - have entered Phase II clinical trials in the field and the first has shown partial efficacy in preventing malarial disease in African children. This Review focuses on the potential immunological basis for the encouraging partial protection induced by these vaccines, and it considers ways for developing more effective malaria vaccines.