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Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurs in approximately 25% of successfully treated patients. Two phase 3 randomized, double-blind trials were conducted at 154 sites in the United States, Canada, and Europe to compare fidaxomicin vs vancomycin in treating CDI. Patients with CDI received fidaxomicin 200 mg twice daily or vancomycin 125 mg 4 times daily for 10 days. The primary end point was clinical cure of CDI at end of treatment, and a secondary end point was recurrence during the 28 days following clinical cure. In all, 1164 subjects were enrolled, of which a subgroup of 128 in the per-protocol population had another recent episode of CDI prior to the CDI diagnosis at study enrollment. In the analysis of this subgroup, initial response to therapy was similar for both drugs (>90% cure). However, recurrence within 28 days occurred in 35.5% of patients treated with vancomycin and 19.7% of patients treated with fidaxomicin (-15.8% difference; 95% confidence interval, -30.4% to -0.3%; P = .045). Early recurrence (within 14 days) was reported in 27% of patients treated with vancomycin and 8% of patients treated with fidaxomicin (P = .003). In patients with a first recurrence of CDI, fidaxomicin was similar to vancomycin in achieving a clinical response at end of therapy but superior in preventing a second recurrence within 28 days.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/cid/cis462

Type

Journal article

Journal

Clin Infect Dis

Publication Date

08/2012

Volume

55 Suppl 2

Pages

S154 - S161

Keywords

Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aminoglycosides, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Canada, Clostridium Infections, Clostridium difficile, Confidence Intervals, Double-Blind Method, Europe, Feces, Female, Fidaxomicin, Humans, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Male, Metronidazole, Middle Aged, Secondary Prevention, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, United States, Vancomycin, Young Adult