Prospects for prevention of Salmonella infection in children through vaccination.
McGregor AC., Waddington CS., Pollard AJ.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are amongst the most commonly identified invasive bacterial pathogens in resource-poor settings, and cause significant mortality, particularly in children. In this study we review recent progress in the development of vaccines against S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi and nontyphoidal Salmonella for children. RECENT FINDINGS: Typhoid remains common and S. Paratyphi A is increasingly recognized as a cause of enteric fever in Asia. In rural Africa, nontyphoidal salmonellae are among the most common invasive bacterial infections, although S. Typhi predominates in some urban centres. Licensed vaccines against typhoid have moderate but useful efficacy but neither of the two available vaccines can be used in infants. Although Ty21a may afford some cross-protection against S. Paratyphi B, there are no vaccines that specifically target paratyphoid or any nontyphoidal Salmonella. Several live attenuated vaccines are under development and may offer some advantages over Ty21a. Vi-conjugate vaccines should offer children excellent protection from typhoid once licensed. SUMMARY: There are few effective vaccines against Salmonella sp. and those that do exist target only one serovar, S. Typhi. Research is urgently needed to combat emerging agents of enteric fever such as S. Paratyphi A as well as nontyphoidal serovars, which commonly cause invasive disease in Africa.