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Developing effective anticancer treatments is a particular challenge, as agents must contend with not only the target cellular biology, but also with the complex tumor microenvironment. Here we discuss various in vitro strategies that have sought to address this issue, with a particular focus on new methodologies that utilize clinical samples in basic research and their application in gene therapy and virotherapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Hum Gene Ther

Publication Date





249 - 256


Animals, Cell Culture Techniques, Disease Models, Animal, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Gene Transfer Techniques, Genetic Therapy, Genetic Vectors, Humans, In Vitro Techniques, Neoplasms, Spheroids, Cellular, Transduction, Genetic, Translational Medical Research, Tumor Cells, Cultured