Microcrystalline Tyrosine (MCT®): A Depot Adjuvant in Licensed Allergy Immunotherapy Offers New Opportunities in Malaria.
Cabral-Miranda G., Heath MD., Gomes AC., Mohsen MO., Montoya-Diaz E., Salman AM., Atcheson E., Skinner MA., Kramer MF., Reyes-Sandoval A., Bachmann MF.
Microcrystalline Tyrosine (MCT®) is a widely used proprietary depot excipient in specific immunotherapy for allergy. In the current study we assessed the potential of MCT to serve as an adjuvant in the development of a vaccine against malaria. To this end, we formulated the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of P. vivax in MCT and compared the induced immune responses to CSP formulated in PBS or Alum. Both MCT and Alum strongly increased immunogenicity of CSP compared to PBS in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Challenge studies in mice using a chimeric P. bergei expressing CSP of P. vivax demonstrated clinically improved symptoms of malaria with CSP formulated in both MCT and Alum; protection was, however, more pronounced if CSP was formulated in MCT. Hence, MCT may be an attractive biodegradable adjuvant useful for the development of novel prophylactic vaccines.