Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in neurological disease.
Reindl M., Waters P.
Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (MOG-Abs) were first detected by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay nearly 30 years ago, but their association with multiple sclerosis (MS) was not specific. Use of cell-based assays with native MOG as the substrate enabled identification of a group of MOG-Ab-positive patients with demyelinating phenotypes. Initially, MOG-Abs were reported in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Further studies identified MOG-Abs in adults and children with ADEM, seizures, encephalitis, anti-aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-Ab)-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and related syndromes (optic neuritis, myelitis and brainstem encephalitis), but rarely in MS. This shift in our understanding of the diagnostic assays has re-invigorated the examination of MOG-Abs and their role in autoimmune and demyelinating disorders of the CNS. The clinical phenotypes, disease courses and responses to treatment that are associated with MOG-Abs are currently being defined. MOG-Ab-associated disease is different to AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD and MS. This Review provides an overview of the current knowledge of MOG, the metrics of MOG-Ab assays and the clinical associations identified. We collate the data on antibody pathogenicity and the mechanisms that are thought to underlie this. We also highlight differences between MOG-Ab-associated disease, NMOSD and MS, and describe our current understanding on how best to treat MOG-Ab-associated disease.