N-butyldeoxynojirimycin-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus entry correlates with changes in antibody recognition of the V1/V2 region of gp120.
Fischer PB., Karlsson GB., Butters TD., Dwek RA., Platt FM.
The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and HIV-induced syncytium formation in vitro. Although NB-DNJ appears to inhibit HIV entry at the level of post-CD4 binding (P.B. Fischer, M. Collin, G.B. Karlsson, W. James, T.D. Butters, S.J. Davis, S. Gordon, R.A. Dwek, and F.M. Platt, J. Virol. 69:5791-5797, 1995), the exact mechanism of action remains to be established. In this study we have examined the effect of NB-DNJ on the structure of recombinant gp120 (rgpl20), expressed in CHO cells, by using a panel of 40 monoclonal antibodies. The levels of binding of antibodies to rgp120 produced in the presence [rgpl20(+)] and absence [rgpl20(-)] of NB-DNJ were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore; Pharmacia). The results showed an increase in the binding to rgp120(+) of antibodies directed against the C1 and C2 regions and a decrease in the binding of antibodies directed against the V1/V2 loops compared with antibody binding to rgpl20(-). A decrease in the binding to rgpl20(+) of antibodies directed against discontinuous epitopes was also observed. No differences were seen in the binding of antibodies directed against the crown of the V3 loop and the C4 region of gp120. Treatment of rgpl20 with alpha-glucosidases I and II had no effect on the differential binding observed, whereas treatment with sialidase abolished the differences seen in the binding of antibodies directed against the C1 and C2 regions of gp120. In addition to these findings, rgpl20(+) showed increased sensitivity to proteases released by CHO cells during expression, as well as to exogenous thrombin. Taken together, the data presented in this paper suggest that production of gp120 in the presence of NB-DNJ affects the conformation of the Vl/V2 loops of gpl20, as well as the overall charge of the C1 and C2 regions. These effects may play a role in the previously described NB-DNJ-mediated inhibition of HIV entry at the level of post-CD4 binding.