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Outbreak: fighting coronavirus

NDM

In a new Oxford Science Blog, Charvy Narain (Communications & Public Engagement Manager, Nuffield Department of Medicine) talks to some of the Oxford University researchers coming together to fight the novel Coronavirus outbreak.

Oxford team to begin novel coronavirus vaccine research

Jenner

A research team at Oxford University’s Jenner Institute is preparing to begin clinical testing of a novel coronavirus vaccine candidate.

Meningococcal disease vaccines in the UK and Australia

Researchers from the University of Oxford have contributed to articles published in January’s issue of The New England Journal of Medicine about meningococcal disease vaccines. In the early 2000s, research in the Department of Zoology helped to show that the conjugate polysaccharide Meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine was effective in prohibiting the spread of MenC bacteria by creating ‘herd immunity’. Herd immunity is indirect protection from an infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population are made immune to infection.

International research consortium activates clinical study for novel coronavirus in England and Scotland

In response the novel coronavirus emergency, the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) has activated its Clinical Characterisation Protocol (CCP) for emerging infections in England and Scotland.

New target identified for repairing the heart after heart attack

DPAG

An immune cell is shown for the first time to be involved in creating the scar that repairs the heart after damage. The Riley Group study was funded by the British Heart Foundation and led by BHF CRE Intermediate Transition Research Fellow Dr Filipa Simões.

New therapeutic target identified in spondyloarthritis

Kennedy

A new study published in Nature Communications identifies a key driver of joint and intestinal inflammation that could lead to future treatment of the chronic inflammatory disease.

Malnutrition linked with increased risk of Zika birth defects

DPAG

The severity of Zika virus-related deformations in babies has been shown to be affected by environmental factors such as maternal nutrition. The study was partially funded by a joint MRC Grant between DPAG's Professor Zoltán Molnár and Associate Professor Patricia Garcez of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

Determining the atomic structure of bacterial surface proteins in situ

Dunn School

Researchers in the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, together with colleagues from across Oxford, have successfully obtained a structure of the surface layer from Gram-negative bacteria, bound to the cell membrane via long sugars called lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, by applying novel electron tomography techniques.

New MERS vaccine clinical trial starts in Saudi Arabia

Jenner

The King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre (KAIMRC), in collaboration with the University of Oxford’s Jenner Institute has started a Phase I clinical trial in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for a vaccine against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

Flu antiviral has bigger benefits for sicker, older patients

A Europe-wide study conducted over three flu seasons finds that the antiviral drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), can help people recover from flu-like illness about one-day sooner on average, with older, sicker patients who have been unwell for longer recovering two-to-three days sooner.

Leptin is the missing piece in the immunometabolism puzzle

DPAG

Associate Professor Ana Domingos reviews the identification of the hormone leptin and explores its significance in the function of immune cells in obesity.

Researchers identify link in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Kennedy

A new study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine reveals how IL-10 and PGE2 work together to prevent inflammatory tissue damage and maintain a healthy gut balance

Typhoid vaccine over 81% effective in tackling disease in Nepal

Paediatrics

A large field study of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) in Nepal has shown a single dose to be safe and effective in reducing typhoid in children aged 9 months to <16 years in an endemic setting.

International neglect of typhoid outside rich countries threatens a new global health emergency

Paediatrics

The emergence of untreatable strains of typhoid threatens a new global health emergency that requires urgent collective action, argue experts from the Oxford Martin School in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases today.

Is mandatory vaccination the best way to tackle falling rates of childhood immunisation?

Paediatrics

Following the publication of figures showing UK childhood vaccination rates have fallen for the fifth year in a row, researchers from OVG and the Oxford Martin Programme on Collective Responsibility for Infectious Disease discuss possible responses.

Dissecting TNF signalling in inflammatory disease

Kennedy

New research from Dr Richard Williams’ group at the Kennedy Institute suggests a route for the development of more selective – and effective – therapies for immune-mediated inflammatory disease.

How HIV acquires its lipid membrane shell

WIMM

The Eggeling group used super-resolution microscopy to show that HIV-1 creates its own specialized lipid membrane environment for virus assembly.

The Zika virus linked to microcephaly, discovered on the African continent

Zoology

Researchers from the University of Oxford teamed up with the Angolan Ministry of Health to study the introduction and circulation of the Asian genotype of Zika virus in Angola, southwestern Africa. The Asian genotype caused the 2015-16 epidemic of microcephaly and other birth defects in the Americas.

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