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: Soluble forms of the coinhibitory receptors programmed death 1 (PD-1) and Tim-3 exist, but their relationship with T-cell surface expression remains unclear. When measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma, soluble PD-1, and soluble Tim-3 were elevated during primary HIV infection, decreased on antiretroviral therapy to levels found in controls, and correlated with cell surface expression. We conclude that soluble PD-1 and soluble Tim-3 are easy to measure biomarkers of immune exhaustion which potentially eliminate the need for flow cytometry.

Original publication

DOI

10.1097/qad.0000000000002165

Type

Journal article

Journal

AIDS (London, England)

Publication Date

06/2019

Volume

33

Pages

1253 - 1256

Addresses

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford.

Keywords

CHERUB Investigators