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OBJECTIVE: To compare prostate carcinoma, with and with no lymph node metastasis, to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue for lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and the expression of the lymph-endothelial specific growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), to determine their role in lymphogenic metastasis. PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymphatic vessels were stained using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 and assessed in standard areas. The expression of VEGF-C was assessed by the number of positive epithelial cells. The data were compared with the clinical staging. RESULTS: The lowest LVD was found in tumorous areas as opposed to periphery and nontumorous tissue (P = 0.007; P < 0.001). The highest LVD was in BPH tissue (P < 0.001). There was no correlation with clinical staging. There was more VEGF-C staining in pN1 than in pN0 and in BPH specimens (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: LVD is not a prognostic variable for the process of lymphogenic metastasis in prostate cancer. VEGF-C is up-regulated in prostate cancer and its correlation with lymph node status suggests a role for the development of lymph node metastasis, e.g. via an increased permeability of lymphatic vessels.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





903 - 906


Aged, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Lymph Nodes, Lymphatic Metastasis, Lymphatic Vessels, Male, Middle Aged, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C