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BACKGROUND: Monocyte dysfunction may persist during antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ART-treated adults with sustained viral suppression and CD4 counts ≥500 cells/µL were consecutively analyzed for monocyte phenotypes and function. RESULTS: Nonclassical monocytes (CD14+, CD16++), interleukin (IL)-1β production, and expression of CD40 and CD86 were lower among ART-treated HIV-infected adults relative to age-matched HIV-negative adults (P = .01, P = .01, and P = .02, respectively). Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, IL6, and soluble CD14 were higher among HIV-infected adults relative to HIV-negative adults (P = .0002, P = .04, and P = .0017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is required to understand drivers of persistent monocyte activation and dysfunction.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





1414 - 1419


HIV infection, immune activation, immune responses, long-term antiretroviral therapy, sub-Saharan Africa