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OBJECTIVES: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 has decreased in the UK since the early 2000s. This analysis reports recent trends and characteristics of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the UK from 2010 to 2013. METHODS: Resistance tests conducted in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve individuals between 2010 and 2013 were analysed for the presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs), defined as any mutations from a modified 2009 World Health Organization surveillance list, or a modified 2013 International Antiviral Society-USA list for integrase tests. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographics and the prevalence of TDRMs. RESULTS: TDRMs were observed in 1223 (7.5%) of 16 425 individuals; prevalence declined from 8.1% in 2010 to 6.6% in 2013 (P = 0.02). The prevalence of TDRMs was higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) compared with heterosexual men and women (8.7% versus 6.4%, respectively) with a trend for decreasing TDRMs among MSM (P = 0.008) driven by a reduction in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-related mutations. The most frequently detected TDRMs were K103N (2.2%), T215 revertants (1.6%), M41L (0.9%) and L90M (0.7%). Predicted phenotypic resistance to first-line ART was highest to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) rilpivirine and efavirenz (6.2% and 3.4%, respectively) but minimal to NRTIs, including tenofovir, and protease inhibitors (PIs). No major integrase TDRMs were detected among 101 individuals tested while ART-naïve. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a decrease in TDRMs in recent years. However, this was confined to the MSM population and rates remained stable in those with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. Resistance to currently recommended first-line ART, including integrase inhibitors, remained reassuringly low.

Original publication

DOI

10.1111/hiv.12414

Type

Journal article

Journal

HIV Med

Publication Date

03/2017

Volume

18

Pages

204 - 213

Keywords

HIV-1, drug resistance, mutations, transmitted, transmitted drug resistance, transmitted drug resistance mutations, Adolescent, Adult, Anti-Retroviral Agents, Cohort Studies, Disease Transmission, Infectious, Drug Resistance, Viral, Female, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, United Kingdom, Young Adult