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OBJECTIVES: Strong genetic association of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with PADI4 (peptidyl arginine deiminase) has previously been described in Japanese, although this was not confirmed in a subsequent study in the UK. We therefore undertook a further study of genetic association between PADI4 and RA in UK Caucasians and also studied expression of PADI4 in the peripheral blood of patients with RA. METHODS: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 111 RA cases and controls. A marker significantly associated with RA (PADI4_100, rs#2240339) in this first data set (P = 0.03) was then tested for association in a larger group of 439 RA patients and 428 controls. PADI4 transcription was also assessed by real-time quantitative PCR using RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 RA patients and 11 healthy controls. RESULTS: A single SNP was weakly associated with RA (P = 0.03) in the initial case-control study, a single SNP (PADI4_100) and a two marker haplotype of that SNP and the neighbouring SNP (PADI4_104) were significantly associated with RA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03 respectively). PADI4_100 was not associated with RA in a second sample set. PADI4 expression was four times greater in cases than controls (P = 0.004), but expression levels did not correlate with the levels of markers of inflammation. CONCLUSION: PADI4 is significantly overexpressed in the blood of RA patients but genetic variation within PADI4 is not a major risk factor for RA in Caucasians.

Original publication




Journal article


Rheumatology (Oxford)

Publication Date





869 - 872


Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Autoantibodies, Biomarkers, Case-Control Studies, Genotype, Humans, Hydrolases, Peptides, Cyclic, Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Protein-Arginine Deiminases