Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil.
de Souza WM., Buss LF., Candido DDS., Carrera J-P., Li S., Zarebski AE., Pereira RHM., Prete CA., de Souza-Santos AA., Parag KV., Belotti MCTD., Vincenti-Gonzalez MF., Messina J., da Silva Sales FC., Andrade PDS., Nascimento VH., Ghilardi F., Abade L., Gutierrez B., Kraemer MUG., Braga CKV., Aguiar RS., Alexander N., Mayaud P., Brady OJ., Marcilio I., Gouveia N., Li G., Tami A., de Oliveira SB., Porto VBG., Ganem F., de Almeida WAF., Fantinato FFST., Macário EM., de Oliveira WK., Nogueira ML., Pybus OG., Wu C-H., Croda J., Sabino EC., Faria NR.
The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on 25 February 2020. We report and contextualize epidemiological, demographic and clinical findings for COVID-19 cases during the first 3 months of the epidemic. By 31 May 2020, 514,200 COVID-19 cases, including 29,314 deaths, had been reported in 75.3% (4,196 of 5,570) of municipalities across all five administrative regions of Brazil. The R0 value for Brazil was estimated at 3.1 (95% Bayesian credible interval = 2.4-5.5), with a higher median but overlapping credible intervals compared with some other seriously affected countries. A positive association between higher per-capita income and COVID-19 diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, the severe acute respiratory infection cases with unknown aetiology were associated with lower per-capita income. Co-circulation of six respiratory viruses was detected but at very low levels. These findings provide a comprehensive description of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and may help to guide subsequent measures to control virus transmission.