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Toll-like receptors are a family of receptors that recognize components of bacteria and induce a proinflammatory response by cells, including macrophages and endothelial cells. Ten human Toll receptors differing in their specificity for microbial components have been cloned. They respond to various components, including lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopeptides of Gram-positive cell walls, bacterial DNA, and flagella. Some Toll-like receptors require the cooperation of an adapter protein. Toll-like receptor 4 function requires the presence of the protein MD2. Recently, it has been shown that Toll-like receptors function cooperatively to increase the specificity of response to a given microbe. Human polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor genes have been discovered and are associated with hyporesponsiveness to bacterial components.

Type

Journal article

Journal

Curr Opin Crit Care

Publication Date

10/2001

Volume

7

Pages

371 - 375

Keywords

Animals, DNA, Bacterial, Drosophila Proteins, Genetic Variation, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Cell Surface, Sepsis, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptor 4, Toll-Like Receptors