Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Toll-like receptors are a family of receptors that recognize components of bacteria and induce a proinflammatory response by cells, including macrophages and endothelial cells. Ten human Toll receptors differing in their specificity for microbial components have been cloned. They respond to various components, including lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopeptides of Gram-positive cell walls, bacterial DNA, and flagella. Some Toll-like receptors require the cooperation of an adapter protein. Toll-like receptor 4 function requires the presence of the protein MD2. Recently, it has been shown that Toll-like receptors function cooperatively to increase the specificity of response to a given microbe. Human polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor genes have been discovered and are associated with hyporesponsiveness to bacterial components.


Journal article


Curr Opin Crit Care

Publication Date





371 - 375


Animals, DNA, Bacterial, Drosophila Proteins, Genetic Variation, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Cell Surface, Sepsis, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptor 4, Toll-Like Receptors