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The year 1997 saw the publication of the complete nucleotide sequence of Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli. It is conceivable that the complete nucleotide sequence for all the major human bacterial pathogens will be available by the end of the century. Database alignments have been used to ascribe the putative functions of open reading frames in the sequenced isolates and to define the differences between bacterial species at the nucleotide level. The most striking finding from all genome projects has been the high proportion of open reading frames that have no known function. Experimental data demonstrating the utility of the genome sequencing projects are only just beginning to emerge.


Journal article


Curr Opin Microbiol

Publication Date





12 - 16


Antigenic Variation, Genome, Bacterial, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections, Humans, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Virulence