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AbstractHuman leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) normally presents a HLA class Ia signal peptide to the NKG2A/C-CD94 regulatory receptors on natural killer (NK) cells and T cell subsets. Rhesus macaques immunized with a cytomegalovirus vectored simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine, generated Mamu-E (HLA-E homolog) restricted T cell responses that mediated post-challenge SIV replication arrest in >50% of animals. However, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) specific HLA-E restricted T cells have not been observed in HIV-1-infected individuals. Here we primed HLA-E restricted HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cells in vitro. These T cell clones, and allogeneic CD8+ T cells transduced with their T cell receptors, suppressed HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells in vitro. Vaccine induction of efficacious HLA-E restricted HIV-1 specific T cells should therefore be possible.One Sentence SummaryCD8+ T cells that recognize a Gag peptide presented by HLA-E suppress HIV-1 replication in vitro.

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