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Despite extensive research, there is still no treatment that would lead to remission in all patients with rheumatoid arthritis as our understanding of the affected site, the synovium, is still incomplete. Recently, single-cell technologies helped to decipher the cellular heterogeneity of the synovium; however, certain synovial cell populations, such as endothelial cells or peripheral neurons, remain to be profiled on a single-cell level. Furthermore, associations between certain cellular states and inflammation were found; whether these cells cause the inflammation remains to be answered. Similarly, cellular zonation and interactions between individual effectors in the synovium are yet to be fully determined. A deeper understanding of cell signalling and interactions in the synovium is crucial for a better design of therapeutics with the goal of complete remission in all patients.

Original publication




Journal article


Rheumatology (Oxford)

Publication Date



cellular localisation, experimental arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, single-cell transcriptomics, synovium