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The burden of Salmonella Typhi shedding in stool and its contribution to transmission in endemic settings is unknown. During passive surveillance S. Typhi shedding was seen during convalescence in 332 bacteremic typhoid patients although none persisted at one-year follow-up. Anti-Vi-IgG titres were measured in age-stratified cohort of serosurveillance participants. Systematic stool sampling of 303 participants with high anti-Vi-IgG titres identified one asymptomatic carrier shedding. These findings suggest ongoing S. Typhi transmission in this setting is more likely to occur from acute convalescent cases although better approaches are needed to identify true chronic carriers in the community to enable typhoid elimination.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date



Typhoid fever, chronic carriers, stool shedding, transmission of S. Typhi