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Given sub-optimal HIV care outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH) post-release from incarceration, we systematically searched peer-reviewed literature (2010–2021) describing controlled trial interventions aimed at improving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) adherence and care linkage following release from correctional facilities for PLWH. Of 392 studies, 16 (4%) met the inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in the United States and involved some form of intensive case management. Trials that scored highest in terms of study quality provided cell phones for engagement, reported sustained viral load suppression as a measurable outcome to infer ART adherence, and measured longitudinal data collected for at least 3-to-6 months following release. The two trials that demonstrated improved HIV viral load suppression involved Peer Navigators, and incentivized undetectable viral load, respectively. Facilitating support for addictions and addressing other social and structural barriers to achieving optimal health is also of vital importance in bridging care gaps for PLWH.

Original publication




Journal article


AIDS and Behavior

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