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The prevalence of obesity is on the rise. What was once considered a simple disease of energy imbalance is now recognized as a complex condition perpetuated by neuro- and immunopathologies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms underlying obesity. We examine the pleiotropic effects of leptin action in addition to its established role in the modulation of appetite, and we discuss the neural circuitry mediating leptin action and how this is altered with obesity, both centrally (leptin resistance) and in adipose tissues (sympathetic neuropathy). Finally, we dissect the numerous causal and consequential roles of adipose tissue macrophages in obesity and highlight recent key studies demonstrating their direct role in organismal energy homeostasis.

Original publication





Publication Date





549 - 573


adipose, innervation, leptin, macrophage, neuroimmune, sympathetic, Adipose Tissue, Homeostasis, Humans, Obesity