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The leader RNA sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) consists of a complex series of stem loop structures that are critical for viral replication. Three-dimensional structural analysis by NMR of one of these structures, the SL1 stem loop of the packaging signal region, revealed a highly conserved purine rich loop with a structure nearly identical to the Rev-binding loop of the Rev response element. Using band-shift assays, surface plasmon resonance, and further NMR analysis, we demonstrate that this loop binds Rev. HIV-1 appears to have a second Rev-binding site close to the major splice donor site that may have an additional role in the viral life cycle.

Original publication




Journal article


J Biol Chem

Publication Date





40385 - 40391


5' Untranslated Regions, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Binding Sites, Gene Products, rev, Genes, env, HIV-1, In Vitro Techniques, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular, Nucleic Acid Conformation, RNA, Viral, Sequence Deletion, Surface Plasmon Resonance, rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus