Bacterial recognition by PGRP-SA and downstream signalling by Toll/DIF sustain commensal gut bacteria in Drosophila.
Bahuguna S., Atilano M., Glittenberg M., Lee D., Arora S., Wang L., Zhou J., Redhai S., Boutros M., Ligoxygakis P.
The gut sets the immune and metabolic parameters for the survival of commensal bacteria. We report that in Drosophila, deficiency in bacterial recognition upstream of Toll/NF-κB signalling resulted in reduced density and diversity of gut bacteria. Translational regulation factor 4E-BP, a transcriptional target of Toll/NF-κB, mediated this host-bacteriome interaction. In healthy flies, Toll activated 4E-BP, which enabled fat catabolism, which resulted in sustaining of the bacteriome. The presence of gut bacteria kept Toll signalling activity thus ensuring the feedback loop of their own preservation. When Toll activity was absent, TOR-mediated suppression of 4E-BP made fat resources inaccessible and this correlated with loss of intestinal bacterial density. This could be overcome by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TOR, which restored bacterial density. Our results give insights into how an animal integrates immune sensing and metabolism to maintain indigenous bacteria in a healthy gut.