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Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing infectious diseases and death. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have made impressive progress in the field of vaccinology over the last three decades so that several VLP-based vaccines are commercially available and generating great public health impact, for example, the hepatitis B virus and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines or in advanced clinical trials such as the RTS,S and R21 VLP malaria vaccines. We have growing in-house experience in Oxford of the use of a wide range of VLPs to target malaria and other diseases by vaccination. As VLPs lack genetic material, they have no replication capacity and are considered very safe. Additionally, VLP-based vaccines have significant ability to induce both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as being safe templates with favorable low-cost and large-scale manufacturing available.

Original publication





Book title

Vaccinology and Methods in Vaccine Research

Publication Date



163 - 176