Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-2 Infection: Recommendations for Management in Low-Resource Settings.
Peterson K., Jallow S., Rowland-Jones SL., de Silva TI.
HIV-2 contributes approximately a third to the prevalence of HIV in West Africa and is present in significant amounts in several low-income countries outside of West Africa with historical ties to Portugal. It complicates HIV diagnosis, requiring more expensive and technically demanding testing algorithms. Natural polymorphisms and patterns in the development of resistance to antiretrovirals are reviewed, along with their implications for antiretroviral therapy. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, crucial in standard first-line regimens for HIV-1 in many low-income settings, have no effect on HIV-2. Nucleoside analogues alone are not sufficiently potent enough to achieve durable virologic control. Some protease inhibitors, in particular those without ritonavir boosting, are not sufficiently effective against HIV-2. Following review of the available evidence and taking the structure and challenges of antiretroviral care in West Africa into consideration, the authors make recommendations and highlight the needs of special populations.