The role of the microbiome in rheumatoid arthritis: a review
Tsetseri MN., Silman AJ., Keene DJ., Dakin SG.
The close bidirectional relationship between the microbiome and the immune system is well supported, and a role of gut dysbiosis has been implied in many systemic autoimmune diseases. This review aims to provide a critical summary and appraisal of 6 murine studies and 16 clinical studies. The findings of the literature review suggest that gut dysbiosis precedes arthritis and that local intestinal inflammation leads to systemic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals. However, the exact mechanism by which microorganisms provoke immune responses at distal sites remains to be elucidated. Although a characteristic RA microbiome was not identified, there were some common findings among studies: overabundance of Prevotella copri in early RA patients, and proliferation of the genus Collinsela and some Lactobacillus species. Three mechanisms by which microbiota might contribute to RA pathogenesis were proposed: inflammatory responses (P. copri and Lactobacillus), molecular mimicry (P. copri) and loss of intestinal barrier integrity (Collinsella). Larger longitudinal studies are required in order to shed light on the mechanisms involved and unravel the therapeutic potential of the microbiome, and clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the implied therapeutic interventions.