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Immune cells rely on the generation of mechanical force to carry out their function. Consequently, there is a pressing need for quantitative methodologies that permit the probing of the spatio-temporal distribution of mechanical forces generated by immune cells. In this chapter, we provide a guide to quantify immune cell force generation using traction force microscopy (TFM), with a specific focus on its application to the study of the T-cell immunological synapse.

Original publication




Journal article


Methods Mol Biol

Publication Date





363 - 373


Biophysics, Cytoskeleton, Immunological synapse, Mechanical forces, Mechanobiology, T cell activation, Traction force microscopy, Microscopy, Atomic Force, Traction, Mechanical Phenomena, Immunological Synapses