Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Interferon (IFN)gamma can have paradoxical functions, eliciting inflammatory T helper 1 (Th1)-driven immune responses in some circumstances, and enabling induced regulatory T (Treg) cells to control immune responses in others. Here, we propose a model in which IFNgamma produced rapidly and only transiently by induced Treg cells is crucial to their function in vivo. This early production of IFNgamma by induced Treg cells during an immune response can directly inhibit the activation and proliferation of IFNgammaR1- and IFNgammaR2-bearing T cells. Furthermore, it can indirectly prevent further T-cell activation by creating a microenvironment that influences the function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as a result of IFNgamma-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Immunol

Publication Date





183 - 187


Animals, Antigen-Presenting Cells, Humans, Immune Tolerance, Interferon-gamma, Models, Immunological, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory