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This overview traces the history of regenerative medicine pertinent to organ transplantation, illustrates potential clinical applications reported to date, and highlights progress achieved in the field of complex modular organ engineering. Regenerative medicine can now produce relatively simple tissues such as skin, bladders, vessels, urethras, and upper airways, whereas engineering or generation of complex modular organs remains a major challenge. Ex vivo organ engineering may benefit from complementary investigations in the fields of developmental biology and stem cells and transplantation before its full potential can be realized.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1310 - 1317


Animals, Bioengineering, Cattle, Chondrocytes, Developmental Biology, History, 20th Century, Humans, Mice, Organ Transplantation, Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Transplantation, Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering