Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: The identification of filaggrin mutations has contributed towards our understanding of hereditary factors associated with epidermal dysfunction observed in individuals with atopic eczema (AE). However, factors that predispose to acquired filaggrin modulation are not well understood. Interleukin (IL)-22 is upregulated in lesional AE tissue, but its effects on filaggrin expression and genes associated with epidermal function have not yet been comprehensively addressed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of IL-22 on expression of filaggrin and genes encoding proteins relevant to epidermal function. METHODS: Microarray analysis was performed on IL-22-stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes. Filaggrin protein level was assessed by an intracellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot in HaCaT cells and the findings were validated in primary keratinocytes. RESULTS: Exposure to IL-22 cytokine resulted in a downregulation of profilaggrin mRNA expression in HaCaT keratinocytes. The expression of genes involved in enzymatic processing of profilaggrin as well as the generation of natural moisturizing factor was also altered. Furthermore, there was an upregulation of many transcripts encoding proteins of the S100 family. Profilaggrin/filaggrin downregulation was detected by intracellular ELISA and Western blot in HaCaT cells. The relevance to the primary setting was confirmed in primary keratinocytes by Western blot. CONCLUSIONS: IL-22 downregulates profilaggrin/filaggrin expression in keratinocytes at both mRNA and protein levels and affects genes relevant to epidermal function. This novel pathway may have relevance to the pathogenesis and treatment of atopic and other skin disease.

Original publication




Journal article


Br J Dermatol

Publication Date





492 - 498


Blotting, Western, Cells, Cultured, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Down-Regulation, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Enzymes, Gene Expression, Humans, Interleukins, Intermediate Filament Proteins, Keratinocytes, Protein Array Analysis, RNA, Messenger