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The immune system is integral to cardiovascular health and disease. Targeting inflammation ameliorates adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Atherosclerosis, a major underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is conceptualized as lipid-driven inflammation in which macrophages play a nonredundant role. However, evidence emerging so far from single-cell atlases suggests a dichotomy between lipid-associated and inflammatory macrophage states. Here, we present an inclusive reference atlas of human intraplaque immune cell communities. Combining single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of human surgical carotid endarterectomies in a discovery cohort with bulk RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry in a validation cohort (the Carotid Plaque Imaging Project), we reveal the existence of PLIN2hi/TREM1hi macrophages as a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent inflammatory lipid-associated macrophage state linked to cerebrovascular events. Our study shifts the current paradigm of lipid-driven inflammation by providing biological evidence for a pathogenic macrophage transition to an inflammatory lipid-associated phenotype and for its targeting as a new treatment strategy for cardiovascular disease.

Original publication




Journal article


Nature Cardiovascular Research

Publication Date





656 - 672