Mathematical modelling of ethanol metabolism in normal subjects and chronic alcohol misusers.
Smith GD., Shaw LJ., Maini PK., Ward RJ., Peters TJ., Murray JD.
The time course of ethanol disappearance from the blood has been examined in normal males and females and in alcohol misusers. Blood alcohol estimations were made over a period of 3 hr, following an oral dose of ethanol (0.8 g/kg body weight) administered in the form of whisky. Attempts were made to fit the data to zero order, first order and mixed zero + first order kinetics. In the majority (75%) of normal females the blood ethanol concentrations was still increasing at 30 min. This was only seen in 50% of normal males and in 50% of non-dependent alcohol misusers, but not in dependent alcohol misusers. In all of the normal females the disappearance of ethanol could be adequately described by zero order kinetics. However, in the normal male group only 20% could be described by zero order kinetics, 10% fitted first order kinetics and the remainder required a mixed model of zero + first order. The rate constant for the zero order component of the control male group was identical to zero order rate constant obtained for the female control group. In the female alcohol misuser group, 40% of the curves could not be described by zero order kinetics and fitted best to a mixed model. The zero order component of the entire group was significantly increased (by 35%) compared to that obtained for the female control group. In the male dependent and non-dependent alcohol misuser groups, all blood alcohol concentration curves fitted best to mixed zero and first order kinetics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)