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Normally, the host immunological response to viral infection is coordinated to restore homeostasis and protect the individual from possible tissue damage. The two major approaches are adopted by the host to deal with the pathogen: resistance or tolerance. The nature of the responses often differs between species and between individuals of the same species. Resistance includes innate and adaptive immune responses to control virus replication. Disease tolerance relies on the immune response allowing the coexistence of infections in the host with minimal or no clinical signs, while maintaining sufficient viral replication for transmission. Here, we compared the virome of bats, rodents and migratory birds and the molecular mechanisms underlying symptomatic and asymptomatic disease progression. We also explore the influence of the host physiology and environmental influences on RNA virus expression and how it impacts on the whole brain transcriptome of seemingly healthy semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) and spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularius). Three time points throughout the year were selected to understand the importance of longitudinal surveys in the characterization of the virome. We finally revisited evidence that upstream and downstream regulation of the inflammatory response is, respectively, associated with resistance and tolerance to viral infections.

Original publication




Journal article


Frontiers in Immunology

Publication Date